Koppers East Site (18AN580)
The Koppers East site (18AN580), or Lutkefedder 2, is
an apparent Early & Late Archaic lithic scatter and
short-term use camp located in the Harmans/Arundel Mills
area of northern Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The site
was first identified during a Phase I survey conducted
in 1985 and 1986. The field project was carried out
along three proposed alternates for the expansion of
MD 100. Moderate to high probability areas were subjected
to surface collection in areas of exposed ground surface
and excavation of shovel test pits (STPs) to located
buried archaeological deposits. STPs were excavated
just to the south of the site, but no STPs were excavated
at 18AN580. Rather, the site was discovered through
surface collection. Even though surface visibility was
only around 1%, a quartz biface, a quartz graver and
scraping tool, 9 quartz flakes, and six pieces of
coal ash were recovered.
At 18AN580, the 1987 Phase II fieldwork entailed the
excavation of 678 STPs and ten 1 X 1 m test units.
Eight of the formal test units were placed in a central
concentration of artifacts, while the other two were
placed next to two STPs that had produced biface
fragments, but were outside the main concentration.
No cultural features were encountered during the Phase
II excavations at 18AN580. The test units usually had
three relatively distinct stratigraphic levels and
ranged in depth from approximately 30 to 70 cm with
most between 50 and 60 cm deep. The vast majority of
material, from both STPs and formal test units came
from the plowzone. A substantial amount of historic
material was also recovered thoughout all units.
Prehistoric artifacts recovered during the Phase II
operations included a rhyolite Kanawha stemmed point,
a quartz Late Archaic stemmed point, a possible Late
Archaic argillite side-notched point, 5 other bifaces,
3 cores, 2 utilized/retouched flakes, 615 flakes/flake
fragments, an anvil/nutting stone, and numerous other
lithics. A number of historic artifacts were also
recovered, but this appears to be 20th-century discard
from a nearby farm, highway maintenance debris, and
discard from passing automobiles.
The site was revisited in October of 2005, during a
Phase I reconnaissance survey for a planned development
project. Phase I work in 2005 entailed initial
pedestrian reconnaissance, followed by shovel testing.
A total of 18 prehistoric artifacts were produced,
including flake fragments, shatter, and worked cobbles.
None of the material was diagnostic and all recovered
The main concentration of the site was small and very
intensively tested during the 1987 Phase II study.
Despite this intensive testing the site did not produce
any features. This was probably due to the fact that
the site was never intensively used, or was never used
as a long-term camp. While a fair number of prehistoric
artifacts were found at the site, these were mixed with
significant amounts of historic material, even below
the plowzone. Most of the prehistoric material is
restricted to the plowzone, in any case. Having no
features naturally detracts from the site’s potential
for further research. Site 18AN850 does not appear to
have the potential for revealing more information than
has already been gathered during the various field
projects that have taken place.
Historical Trust Synthesis Project)