Site 18AN400, or the Intersection Site, is a multi-component
prehistoric and historic period archaeological site near
Hanover in Anne Arundel County. The prehistoric component
dates from the Late Archaic through the Early Woodland.
The historic component dates from the late 19th to mid- 20th
century and is related to the operation of a blacksmith
and wheelwright’s shop that stood near the site location.
Site 18AN400 is located within a 100 acre tract that a Benton
Cole obtained from his father, Thomas W. Cole, in 1872.
During the mid to late 1870s, Cole leased portions of the
property to wheelwright Lewis B. Richards and later to
Balthasar Bach, who was also listed in the 1880 Census
as a wheelwright. The lease passed to Charles Reimensnyder
in 1885. Reimensnyder was listed as a blacksmith in the 1880
Census and had been renting a house from Cole since 1877.
The property was sold in 1896. Charles Reimensnyder still
was listed as a blacksmith in the 1900 Census, which suggested
he had continued the operation of the blacksmith shop since
taking over the lease in 1885. After Charles’ death in 1916,
his son Henry N. Reimensnyder continued the blacksmith and
wheelwright business until sometime in the 1930s.
Site 18AN400 was first identified in the 1970s as a Late
Archaic and Woodland period short-term resource procurement
camp. In 1980, the site was visited during a Phase I
survey for a new utility pipeline. In the fall of 2006,
Site 18AN400 was relocated during the course of a Phase
I survey related to the widening of MD 295. Six of the 9
shovel tests contained cultural materials. No cultural
features were identified, but a total of 539 historic
late 19th and 20th-century artifacts were recovered,
and a burned cultural horizon was identified. It was
thought that the burned horizon could be representative
of the presence of a historic forge nearby.
Cultural features identified during the Phase II site
evaluation of 18AN400 were of indeterminate association
and could not be definitively linked to the operation
of the blacksmith shop. Three identified features were
linked to the pouring of a concrete foundation. The
foundation appears to date to the early 20th century.
The other feature identified was an early to mid 20th
century refuse pit of unknown size and depth in the
south-central portion of the site. Artifacts in the
remnant cultural layer (buried A horizon) consisted
predominantly of metal (over 84%) and included items
related to farrier work and wagon repair. It was
determined that this layer was likely laid down no
earlier than 1875 and reflects use of the site area
through at least the 1920s.
The Phase II fieldwork yielded 225 prehistoric and 8,167
historic artifacts. Diagnostic artifacts suggest that
the prehistoric component dated from the Late Archaic
and was a short-term lithic reduction locus focused on
procurement of locally available cobble resources.
The historic component is related to a blacksmith shop
that operated near the intersection of the two roads at
the site between 1877 and 1928. The shop was razed
between 1928 and 1941 and by 1949 the property had been
sold and a residence built near the former location of
the blacksmith shop. At its height, the shop included
three workshop buildings and a lumber house. The partial
foundation of one later building (the concrete foundation)
remains visible in the southwestern corner of the site.
Phase II investigation of 18AN400 indicated that although
the site produced a relatively large number of cultural
materials, and contained a few features, it also has been
subject to post-occupation disturbances. Most of these
disturbances relate to the construction and occupation
of the 20th century residence onsite. The site was
determined to lack integrity and is no longer considered
a significant archaeological resource.
Historical Trust Synthesis Project)