Larkington Site (18AN1000)

The Larkington Site (18AN1000) consisted of two domestic complexes; the earlier occupation may have begun as early as the mid-17th century and ended before 1860. The later occupation began shortly after 1860 and lasted until 1916. This site, on the south side of the South River, was recorded by Al Luckenbach in 1994 following a walkover survey in which he collected artifacts from a looter's backdirt pile. These included tin-glazed earthenware, refined red earthenware, scratch blue white salt-glazed stoneware, blue and gray salt-glazed stoneware, wrought nails, annular ware, transfer-printed whiteware, pearlware, and American brown salt-glazed stoneware.

During Phil Hill's 2000 Phase II testing of the site, a pedestrian survey identified and exposed several structure-related features. Artifacts associated with these features were selectively surface collected. A total of 65 shovel tests and 12 3x3' test units were excavated. Between surface collection and excavation, 9,543 artifacts were recovered from the Larkington site. Of these, 11 were prehistoric, including 1 rhyolite Perkiomen point, a Terminal Late Archaic broadspear dated 1700-900 B.C.

The historic period was represented by 7 cultural features and nearly 10,000 domestic- and architectural-related artifacts and faunal remains. The cultural features included three stone foundations, a cellar hole filled with domestic refuse, a well and associated builder's trench, and a large trash pit. Based on documentary research and archaeological fieldwork, the Larkington site was determined to be composed of two domestic complexes and occupied during two distinct time periods. The earlier occupation may have begun as early as the mid-17th century, but started no later than the mid-18th century, and ended before 1860. The occupants were affiliated with the Brewer family plantation and may have been overseers and/or tenant farmers. The later occupation began shortly after 1860 and lasted until 1916. Joseph A. Robinson, a member of the Brewer family and a small-scale farmer, was the occupant during this period. An examination of the ceramic artifacts and faunal remains suggest that the occupants of the Larkington site were of a modest socio-economic status.

Jim Gibb's Phase III investigation was conducted between 5/4/05 and 6/11/05, and consisted of the excavation of 17 5x5' units, and three smaller unscreened test trenches designed to expose portions of brick walls. The Larkington site was occupied prehistorically, particularly during the Middle Woodland and early Late Woodland periods (n=117 artifacts). Temporally diagnostic artifacts included 14 Popes Creek, 21 Mockley, and 2 Rappahannock sherds. Lithic materials included 3 quartz, 8 quartzite, 8 chert, and 36 rhyolite. The meager artifact evidence suggests that these were small, single-component occupations that focused on oyster harvesting and processing. These are plow-disturbed components, and intact midden deposits are few and severely truncated.

Historic occupations were found to begin in the 18th century, with no clear evidence of 17th-century occupation identified. All pipestem bore diameters (including reexamination of Hill's Phase II bores) were 4/65ths and 5/64ths (1720-1800). The bulk of the archaeological evidence appears to be the products of two households, both small by local standards: that headed by Joseph Newton Brewer from as early as 1811 until his death in 1841, and by his widow Sarah until her death prior to 1880, and that headed by Joseph A. Robinson from Sarah's death until his death in 1916. It is entirely possible that Joseph Robinson lived alone for many of those years between 1880 and 1916.

(Edited from archeological site survey form, Maryland Historical Trust)


  • Gibb, James G., and Dionisios Kavadias
  • 2005. Phase III Archaeological Impact Mitigation at the Larkington Site (18AN1000), Turnbull Estates, Edgewater, Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Gibb Archaeological Consulting.
  • Hill, Philip
  • 2001. A Phase II Archeological Evaluation of the Larkington Site, Site 18AN1000, Located in Lot 60R of Turnbull Estates in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Archaeological Testing and Consulting, Inc.

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