Evitts Creek I (18AG186)

The Evitts Creek I site (18AG186) was first encountered during Phase I survey (a surface collection) related to the relocation of US 220. The site is situated on a broad terrace overlooking Evitts Creek, consisting of poorly-drained Huntington silt loam soils. The results of that study indicated that Evitts Creek I might have campsite occupations spanning the Early Archaic through Late Woodland periods. Projectile points identified during Phase I investigations include Palmer, Brewerton Eared-notched, Lamoka, Normanskill-like, Susquehanna-like, Perkiomen-like, Steubenville/Fox Creek, Adena-like, and triangular points. In addition, several cores, hammerstones, unifaces, bifaces, steatite bowl fragments, and prehistoric potsherds were recovered. These Phase I artifacts are not included in the artifact tallies below.

Phase II research was designed to assess the eligibility of the site for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The goal of the project was to assess the integrity, significance, and horizontal and vertical extent of the archaeological deposits. The Phase II testing was conducted in two stages. Stage I consisted of a surface survey, following plowing and disking. Based on the distribution of artifacts resulting from the surface collection, a series of sixteen 1 X 1 m test units was excavated during the second stage of the survey. The test units were placed on, near, and off the areas of dense artifact concentration and were dug in 10 cm arbitrary levels.

By far, a greater number of artifacts, particularly diagnostics, were recovered from surface collections rather than subsurface testing. No features were encountered. Only one prehistoric pottery fragment was recovered from the site. It appears to be Page ware and is limestone tempered with interior and exterior smoothed surfaces.

Most of the prehistoric artifacts recovered were lithics, including many diagnostic projectile points. Two Brewerton points (1 corner-notched, 1 eared-triangle), 1 Lamoka point, 6 Susquehanna points, 1 Orient Fishtail point, a Jack’s Reef corner-notched point, a Backstrum side-notched point, and 3 Levanna pointswere found during surface collection. An untyped stemmed point was also recovered. Thirteen bifaces, 1 uniface, and 3 cores or core fragments were retrieved and complete the assemblage of formal flaked stone tools. Three groundstone objects were encountered, two abraders and one ground and smoothed chert bead with a hole drilled through it. The remaining lithics were flakes and debitage. There were 314 unretouched flakes and fragments of shatter. Most of the flakes were of chert and rhyolite. 402 fragments of fire-cracked rock were also recovered.

Faunal artifacts were sparse (15 objects) and consisted primarily of unidentified shell and a few animal bones.

Historic artifacts were also encountered. These were probably related to a nearby historic site and consisted primarily of glass and late 19th/early 20th century ceramics.

18AG186 is largely a shallow surface site that was occupied during the Late and Terminal Archaic and Late Middle Woodland to Late Woodland periods. Assemblage characteristics suggest numerous short term visits to the levee through these various periods in prehistory. It is likely that the stream resources of Evitts Creek and of the backswamp area north of the current flood chute were the primary attraction for small groups of foragers or collectors.

(Edited from the Maryland Historical Trust Synthesis Project)

References

  • Siegel, Peter E., and J. Sanderson Stevens
  • 1994. Phase II Archaeological Evaluation of the Evitts Creek I Site (18AG186), Allegany County, Maryland. John Milner Associates. SHA Archeological Report No. 90.

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