A hard brick-red to purplish earthenware paste
made by combining red and yellowish clays. Vessels are usually thick,
often with ribbed exteriors, and generally glazed with a thick black
Mid-17th – 19th centuries. Black lead glazed wares made from mixed red and yellow clays were being produced in Wales and England, particularly Northwest
England, by the mid-17th century,
and continued to be made into the 19th century. They have been recovered from 1690 – 1720 contexts at kilns
in Buckley, Wales, and from late 18th - early 19th century contexts at
sites in Merseyside (Davey 1987, 1991; Cresswell and Davey 1989).
Buckley-type vessels are rare on Chesapeake sites
dating before the 1720s, when they were heavily imported, and become
rare again on sites occupied after the American Revolution (Noel
Hume 1970). However, a few examples have been recovered from late
17th century contexts in Maryland
(Miller 1983; Hornum et al. 2001).
Buckley-type wares are made from a mixture of red and yellow/white
clays. The mixture is most often evident in cross-section as striations
or lenses of clay, but roundish clay inclusions also occur. The
use of two clays tends to be more obvious on utilitarian pieces
than on tablewares, which are more finely and completely mixed,
but this is not a hard and fast rule (Philpott 1985a:85; Davey 1987:98).
Generally, the darker clay predominates, which produces a dark red
to purple paste. However, sometimes the lighter clay predominates,
and the vessel fires to a light orange color (Philpott 1985a: 85).
This variant is occasionally seen on sites in the Chesapeake. Inclusions
of small particles of quartz or other stone, as well as grog, can
be present in the paste (Philpott 1985a:85).
Buckley-type wares are generally covered by a dark brown to black
lead glaze. However, variants with a clear lead glaze, which appears
brown on the vessel, also occur. Vessels from the 17th century can have a dull dark brown glaze due to over-firing, while
a glossy, metallic black glaze was introduced in the mid-to-late
18th century (Philpott 1985a:86). Bowl forms are usually
glazed on the interior surfaces only, while storage jars are glazed
on both surfaces. A red slip under the glaze covers many vessels,
particularly the larger ones (Philpott 1985a).
Buckley vessels were not decorated, but throwing marks or ribbing,
produced during the manufacturing process, are apparent.
Vessels range from tablewares such as cups, tygs, bowls, and
pitchers to large storage vessels, butterpots, milkpans, and
even some cooking pots. Rims on the utilitarian vessels are generally
large and thick. The tablewares declined in popularity by the early
18th century (Philpott 1985a),
and Maryland assemblages are dominated by utilitarian forms.
Cresswell and Davey 1989; Davey
1987, 1991; Hornum et al. 2001; Miller 1983; Noël Hume 1970; Philpott 1985.