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Drinking - The Outlander series often depicts characters consuming alcohol, and it is clear from the archaeological evidence that Maryland’s colonists did the same. Drinking seems to have been a favorite pastime in the 18th-century British world. In 1708, one sea captain observed that, “Upon all the new settlements the Spaniards make, the first thing they do is build a church, the first thing the Dutch do upon a new colony is to build them a fort, but the first thing ye English do, be it in the most remote part of ye world, or among the most barbarous of Indians, is to set up a tavern or drinking house” (Curtis 2006). While Maryland had many public houses and ordinaries, all of the artifacts of drinking shown here were found in private homes., Illustration shown of how a bottle opening tool from the 18th century, was broken down and what each part wasused for., Photo image of a bottle opener:Bottle Opener with Serrated Blade, Date: ca. 1711-1754, Site Name: Smith’s St. Leonard, Site Number:18CV91/303 - This artifact represents a fragment of a handy gadget that would have once boasted both a corkscrew for opening bottles, and a cover for the corkscrew. Interestingly, the tool also has a small serrated blade that folded down when not in use. This blade may have been used to remove 18th-century cork covers, which could consist of wire, twine, paper, cloth, wax, resins and combinations of the above. However, multi-purpose tools akin to the Swiss Army knife were also popular, so the tool could just represent an all-purpose blade and corkscrew combined., Photo image of a stoneware mug:Stoneware Mug, Date: ca. 1690-1730, Site Name: Addison Plantation, Site Number:18PR175/7984 - The everyday mug has not changed much over the past 250 years. This stoneware mug was probably made in England and imported to Maryland where it could be used for any kind of beverage from plain old water to spirits like cider and beer. This is not the kind of vessel that status-obsessed colonists would have typically used to drink wine, but it seems unlikely that a thirsty person near a tapped cask would fail to take a drink, even if they only had a mug on hand. The mug therefore exemplifies the all-purpose beverage serving container of the 18th century., Photo image of a spigot:Spigot, Date: ca. 1700-1790, Site Name: Saunders Point, Site Number:18AN39/29 -  Today we generally buy our beverages by the bottle or can, but in the 18th century that kind of individual packaging was not a given. Beverages like cider, beer,  rum, and wine were typically made in batches and initially stored in casks of various sizes. The liquids could then be transferred to bottles for further distribution, or they could be shipped in casks. Spigots like this were needed to tap the casks. The portion of the spigot that would have entered the cask is missing on this example, but the handle that turned to open and close the spigot is still present., Photo image of a tin-glazed punch bowl:Tin-Glazed Punch Bowl, Date: ca. 1720-1750, Site Name: Oxon Hill Manor, Site Number:18PR175/MV112 - Unlike the mug, the punch bowl of the 18th-century was a specialized drinking vessel designed for communal punch consumption. Recipes for punch varied, but in general they mixed strong alcoholic beverages (e.g. rum, brandy, and cognac), citrus juices (especially lemon juice), water, sugar, and spices. Large bowls and ladles were used to distribute punch at bigger gatherings, but drinkers could also sip directly from smaller punch bowls like this example, which were then passed around to be shared with others.  When not in use, decorative punch bowls might also be displayed as attractive household décor items. Chinese landscape motifs, such as the whimsical painting on this bowl,  were most popular between the 1720s and 1780s, with peak popularity in the 1750s and 1760s. That fits the archaeological context of the bowl, because it was found in an abandoned well that was filled with household garbage between ca. 1720 and 1750., Photo image of free-blown bottle:Free-Blown Bottle, Date: ca. 1689-1711, Site Name: King’s Reach, Site Number:18CV83/213KK - Hand-blown dark green glass bottles such as this were made for transporting and storing  wine. The bottles have thick walls to prevent breakage on long voyages, which made them a feasible alternative to shipping wine in casks.  Although the bottles arrived in Maryland full of wine, they were not necessarily discarded once their original contents were consumed. Assuming they survived an evening of inebriated partying,  bottles could be cleaned and reused to carry beverages from the cask to the table. Sometimes they were also used for food storage. For example, archaeologists at Colonial Williamsburg once found a stash of buried bottles full of cherries at the Wetherburn’s Tavern site. Although it’s unclear whether the intent was to simply preserve the cherries dry, or set up the bottles to make cherry-flavored alcoholic beverages, it is clear that these durable glass bottles were reused when possible.